Igor Ashurbeyli Editor-in-Chief

Commitment to the future of humanity

Revs are running high as ROOM - The Space Journal boldly enters its third year as a unique platform where world leading space experts and opinion makers share their ultimate achievements, grave concerns and daring visions for the world future.

I am honoured and humbled, after one and half decades at the European Space Agency (ESA), having lived through a space mission of my husband, having published books of prose and poetry and having hosted a television show, to be running our constantly growing network of ROOM contributors - a network of extraordinary women and men, who help shape our future.

It is no secret that the world order today is much more volatile and unstable than one would have guessed even a decade ago. While knowledge grows exponentially and so do the hi-tech benefits, can we say the same about the ethics and moral values of different parts of human society? In the face of our calamitous political world, Jacques Arnoud shares his ideas with readers.

While we seem to be in a good technical shape to go beyond low Earth orbit, are we truly united in the face of the unknown?

In this issue you can also read about how to be immersed into a pool and yet remain dry as a way of contributing to future interplanetary human missions, how to visit a dentist en route to Mars, and the development of a space suit by an international multi-disciplinary team for the first Moon dwellers. Hey, wouldn’t you like to weigh six times less? I know I would!

Next time you gaze into the night sky looking for the International Space Station, think of those incredible bacteria which can survive in extreme environments, as astrobiologist Michaela Musilova reveals.

And look out for the mysteriously absent dwarf galaxies explained by Olivia Keenan. If you are like me, and you like the mythological notion that our Milky Way was formed as Greek goddess Hero spilled her breast milk feeding baby Hercules, the question of where those dwarf galaxies come from is a good one to ponder.

Can modern space exploration be compared to the colonisation campaigns of the 17th century? Harris Innes-Miller identifies analogies that span the centuries and suggests we might do well to learn from the past so that people living a couple of centuries from now don’t have to deal with colonial guilt and retributions after we land on other celestial bodies.

Perhaps ion engines will be used to make such travel possible? Read what Michael J. Patterson thinks about it.

While we seem to be in a good technical shape to go far beyond low Earth orbit soon, are we truly united in the face of the unknown? Are we optimising all cutting edge achievements and resources to make it work?

The answer, sadly, is ‘no’ and Jim Brindenstine brings us down to Earth as he explains the priorities, alliances and rivalries between the key players in the global space arena. That is from an American perspective of course.

To sum it all up I ask myself, will URBOCOP as proposed by Igor Ashurbeyli, save us as citizens of planet Earth from natural cosmic hazards and even from ourselves?

As a cautious optimist, I choose to think that we have grown far enough from the pitiful human flaw described thus in Shakespeare’s First Sonnet: ‘Making famine where abundance lies, Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel’.

All of you, dear fellow space professionals and space enthusiasts, dear ROOM readers, with all your work, drive, commitment and aspirations, with your interest, passion and constructive thinking raise faith into the future of humanity.

We are open 24/7 at www.room.eu.com to hear your thoughts and ideas about space and beyond. Looking forward to meeting you in person and on-line soon.

Lena De Winne

Director, ROOM – The Space Journal

Protecting planet Earth is down to us

The challenge of exploring space manifests many benefits and enduring qualities for humankind and, at a time when many individual nations face tough challenges and choices, space can be a unifying and positive force.

Stimulating and sharing new ideas across the global aerospace industry, space science communities and academia is an important part of our mission at ROOM. Cross-pollination is a welcome outcome, with international cooperation becoming a common theme that surfaces naturally in many of the articles we publish.

For the space industry in particular, international cooperation has become almost a de facto fault line. It even crosses the former Iron Curtain in the case of France and the former Soviet Union, as the CEO of Arianespace, Stephane Israel, writes in his article (p. 22), which celebrates two decades of space launch cooperation between France, Europe and Russia.

This is just one example of many spanning the global space industry, encapsulated by the great American industrialist and founder of the Ford Motor Company, Henry Ford, when he said, “Coming together is a beginning, staying together is progress, and working together is success.”

In his article ‘Flying in formation: why China and the rest of the world should collaborate in low Earth orbit’ (p. 32) independent analyst Chen Lan challenges the political establishments of both East and West to take advantage of a unique opportunity to work together in low Earth orbit.

‘Astropolitics’ might be part of a new approach to space, setting a framework for dealing with many potential issues

International Space Station partners face important choices after its retirement and though China has expressed a willingness to join the project many times all attempts have previously been rejected by the United States. Political and legal obstacles often prove more challenging and difficult than technical issues.

Space law is certainly one area which displays elements of both cooperation and ambitious individuality, the latter driven by commercial aspirations to take advantage of the anticipated rich pickings to be had when it comes to mining valuable resources in outer space.

ROOM was delighted to be closely involved with the ‘4th Manfred Lachs International Conference on Conflicts in Space and the Rule of Law’ held in Montreal, Canada, which proved fertile ground for international lawyers and experts who gathered to discuss and debate this and other related issues.

However, human nature being what it is, someday in the not too distant future the first serious crime will be committed in space - what will it be and how will we handle it?

In Montreal, Igor Ashubeyli suggested that ‘Astropolitics’ might be part of a new international approach, setting a framework for dealing with potential issues and defining who would be responsible for trying, convicting and punishing someone who commits, for example, a murder in space.

Some of these questions raised are also discussed in the thought-provoking article ‘Exploring the problems of criminal justice in space’ (p. 87), contibruted by Christopher Newman, a reader in law at the University of Sunderland in the UK.

It certainly goes without saying that as more and more people venture into low Earth orbit and beyond, the issue of how to deal with an off-world crime will necessarily come to the fore.

Especially challenging is devising a procedure that will uphold the investigation and punishment of any crime and how this might be administered on, for example, a long duration interplanetary space mission.

In the final analysis, cooperation is key. We share common responsibility for a world of eight billion. And as we move into a new era of space exploitation and exploration we need imaginative international cooperation, steadfast commercial treaties and robust laws like never before.

Avoiding conflict in space

My regards, dear readers. Good day, Montreal!

As I thought about the event in Montreal and the origins of air travel, it occurred to me that French people have always been at the frontier. Really, you ask?

The founding fathers of aeronautics were the Montgolfier brothers (for the sake of argument let us forget about Daedalus and Icarus as we can’t quite be sure of their citizenship). And marquis d’Arlandes and baron Pilatre de Rozier were the first to launch an aerostat balloon. Henri Giffard, also a Frenchman, was the first to equip the balloon with a mechanical engine, while back in 1884, his countrymen Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs were the first to take a fully controllable airship on an 8 km trip at a speed of 23.5 km per hour, landing back right where they started.

We gather for international conferences to discuss our differences whilst at the same time building legal foundations for the conflicts we create

Though it was the great Russian scientist and inventor Mikhail Lomonosov who designed a spring-driven helicopter model with coaxial rotors way back in 1754 he, of course, didn’t actually fly... And, if we kept going back in time, we’d also have to consider the great Italian, Leonardo Da Vinci.

But let us cut short our historical digression and return to the present. This issue of ROOM magazine coincides with the 4th Annual Manfred Lachs International Conference ‘Conflicts in Space and the Rule of Law’ at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, which is in turn dedicated to the 65th anniversary of the Institute of Air and Space Law.

Human beings are truly remarkable creatures. It was only 100 years ago that we really learned to get up into the sky. And, despite it being little more than half a century since we first scratched the surface of space, we have already managed to run into conflicts in this new realm of opportunity.

We gather for international conferences to discuss our differences while simultaneously, or pre-emptively, building a legal foundation for the conflicts we create. And the question of ‘who is more important in space?’ - the military, lawyers or financiers - is still an open-ended one.

In The Merry Wives of Windsor, one of William Shakespeare’s most famous plays, the English playwright and poet wrote, ‘Money is good soldier, sir, and will on’. A true saying, of course. But is that to be the fate of international space law? Rule of the powerful or rule of the wealthy? Will only the money soldier on? Or will it finally be the rule of justice?

It also raises the question, what is justice? Membership of the great club of space powers is limited to a select few - less than the fingers on one hand - and in that exclusive club today there is one clear leader. The test will be whether this leader ultimately delivers a true space ‘democracy’ across legal, military and economical boundaries.

Will this be accepted by both current members of the club and those countries that are quickly approaching the technological threshold required for membership? And how will the pvying up of Space be different from the historical pvying up of Earth?

Something tells me that international humanitarian calls for a peaceful and open space will not be easily heard. Space, up and beyond the skies above, will not necessarily be peaceful or cloudless.

Sadly, humanity has not changed. The very nature of homo sapiens - or even that of homo ‘gambliens’ - will not allow us to harness our ancient earthly instincts. And we will live to see new space cowboys in lunar saloons and on space ranchos.

Never the same again

The world will never be the same again. How many people on how many occasions have said this? And yet, if humanity were to define a single life-changing event in the entire history of planet Earth what would it be?

Certainly a top contender would be the catastrophic changes triggered by the collision of a giant meteorite with Earth which brought life to a sudden end for the epoch’s living creatures and led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Imagine, though, we could travel back some 65 million years to the Mesozoic era, taking with us all the knowledge and technology available today. Would we have been able to foresee the approach of such a meteorite in advance? And what could we have done to avoid it?

Despite millions of years of evolution and our rapid recent technological progress, the unannounced Chelyabinsk meteorite impact over Russia of February 2013 might actually suggest very little.

In this issue our contributors discuss a broad range of innovative projects crucial for ‘conquering’ space and ultimately the survival of the human race

Many great scientists and writers have pondered this matter - among them Johannes Kepler, Galileo, Tsiolkovsky, Jules Verne, Arthur C. Clarke, Isaac Asimov, Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking.

And in this issue of ROOM our contributors follow in their footsteps, discussing a broad range of innovative projects and developments crucial for the ‘conquering’ of space and ultimately the survival of the human race.

Perhaps our situation is still best summarised by Wernher von Braun in A Plea for a Coordinated Space Program when he wrote in 1953, ‘I only hope that we shall not wait to adopt the space programme until after our astronomers have reported a new and unsuspected asteroid moving across their fields of vision with menacing speed. At that point it will be too late!’

Whereas space agencies and governments have traditionally taken the lead in defining the development paths for science and technology used in spaceflight, today the commercial sector is picking up pace in defining the future of space.

Maybe this is also a sign that human society in general is getting closer to fully recognising the true importance of space exploration - and all the implications it has for the future of life on Earth.

And, who knows, if we keep evolving exponentially it might be in our lifetime that the first interplanetary settlers leave Earth to lay the foundations of living on another planet.

They will be the true ambassadors for humankind in the universe. When we hear that familiar phrase ‘we have a lift off’ we know they will be on their way - and the world will never be the same again.

Shalom, Israel!

The new issue of ROOM has been timed to coincide with the International Astronautical Federation’s 66th Congress, which takes place in Jerusalem this year.

I believe that Israel playing host to the International Astronautical Congress (or IAC, as it’s commonly known) this year is not accidental. In the last decade, Israel has made huge strides for science and engineering in the space industry – everybody is familiar with Israeli technology, from space drones to navigations systems, and this sector promises even greater progress for this nation in the years to come.

Authors Madry, Jakhu, and Pelton zero in on what is clearly one of the most important issues facing us today – an enormous regulatory gap that must be dealt with without stifling private space initiative

This issue’s main theme is the story of the thrilling discovery of Kepler-452b – potentially the most Earth-like planet ever found – as told by Jon Jenkins, lead data analyst at the Kepler mission.

I am also delighted to tell you that in this issue, we have presented a number of articles on similar themes as told from different viewpoints, in line with our aims to serve as a discussion platform. In our astronautics section, we tackle two equally fascinating environments – Mars and Pluto. When it comes to security, our authors look at how to best address the challenge of space debris and deorbiting satellites. When it comes to the environment, we address how the European Space Agency is now performing Earth observation, as well as how to deal with the threat of asteroid impact. We also have two in-depth reports on important space industry advances involving the evolution of green cosmonautics and the evolution of food in space.

I furthermore wish to highlight our reports on the strides that the UK and Japan have respectively made with regard to space. Discussing the achievements of individual countries’ space programmes is an important new direction for us, as we want to maintain and widen our international perspective. We now aim for two country profiles in each print issue.

Finally, I ask everyone to pay special attention to the article on global space governance, which urges the space community to address how “new space,” a.k.a. for-profit space exploration, is moving beyond traditional government-funded missions. In “The Global Space Governance Study,” authors Scott Madry, Ram Jakhu, and Joseph N. Pelton zero in on what is clearly one of the most important issues facing us today – an enormous regulatory gap that must be dealt with without stifling private space initiative.

ROOM aims to be very active in helping organise and publicise next year’s conference on space governance – and help all interested parties discuss the problems presented in the article. So watch this space (no pun intended) and happy reading!

ROOM is coming to the Paris Air Show

The fourth issue of ROOM comes out in the summer of 2015, 70 years after the end of World War II. I would therefore like to take the opportunity to congratulate all of you, without exception, on this landmark date in human history.

Warfare had taken to the air earlier, during World War I, in the beginning of the 20th century. By the time World War II began, the role of aviation and air defence in warfare grew in scope and size several times over. In the 70 years that followed, regional wars and localised conflicts demonstrated significant increase of height, speed, range and other improved technical characteristics of both defensive and offensive aerial warfare.

Beginning in the 20th century, we also began to put up all kinds of cosmic and cross-environment flying apparatuses into space. In spite of international agreements on the demilitarisation of space, some of this technology can have, at the very least, a double purpose.

I want to believe that humanity will resist the temptation to take its earthly quarrels to space

Therefore, in this quite significant year for Europe, for republics of the former USSR, the U.S., Japan, China, and all over the world– in the year we celebrate defeating fascism – I want to believe that humanity will resist the temptation to take its earthly quarrels to space, and that the cosmos will remain pure and open to joint, peaceful exploration by us all.

Finally, I would like to give a short summary of our latest editorial news at ROOM:

The fourth issue of the magazine is timed to coincide with the international Paris Air Show in Le Bourget, France, which takes place from June 15 to June 21. We extend our greetings to all participants and guests of the air show and invite you to visit our stand at Hall 6 – A19. We are also participating in the International

Aviation and Space Salon in the town of Zhukovsky, Moscow region, Russia, from August 25 to August 30. There we will also look forward to seeing friends and everyone who is interested in aerospace issues.

In our fourth issue, we particularly wished to highlight innovations and new technologies in the space industry.

I hope you will find this issue both interesting and enjoyable. Happy reading!

Room is evolving - thanks to you!

I am thrilled to welcome you to the third issue of ROOM magazine - a publication that continues to thrive and develop.

In December of 2014, we held our very fi rst editorial board meeting in London. I would like to extend my warmest gratitude to all board members who could make it - as well as to those who could not make it, but still sent extremely helpful suggestions and advice.

In this issue, we aim to explore the satellite industry at length

I would in particular like to single out Mary Lynne Dittmar, who participated via Skype in spite of an enormous time difference, Tsuneo Nishida, who fl ew eleven hours to discuss space, a topic that was then relatively new to him, yet nevertheless one that inspired him to share considerable wisdom with the rest of our team, and Barbara Ghinelli, who devoted so much of her personal time to working with us.

I would like to note that our magazine has contiued to increase its scope. In this issue, we have contributions from countries such China, Japan and Australia. We are also privileged to be receiving feedback and acknowledgements from all over the world.

In 2015, ROOM plans to have a strong presence at crucial international events. We will see you at Satellite 2015 in Washington D.C., at the Paris Air Show - Le Bourget, at the Air & Space Conference and Technology Exposition in Maryland, at the Heads of Space Agencies Summit on Climate Change and Disaster Management in Mexico City, and at the 66th International Astronautical Congress in Jerusalem. We’ll be glad to say hello. Please stop by to see us!*

We also plan on having our next editorial board meeting this June in Paris - and we look forward to bringing you news of what we achieve.

For now, I would like to turn your attention back to the magazine, and the exciting array of articles therein. We have devoted a great deal of space to the topic of satellites - a booming industry, beset by challenges, characterised by tremendous breakthroughs, and continuously fascinating to watch develop. As always, we continue to look forward to your feedback. Happy reading!

Epic feats of humanity

It is my pleasure to present to you the second issue of ROOM, the space magazine. During the past months, our young publication has come a long way, both creatively and literally.

ROOM began its travels around the globe by participating in the International Airshow that was held from 14-20 July in Farnborough, UK. Several thousand Airshow attendees got a chance to see the magazine, among them those from leading world aerospace corporations, SMEs, airlines and space agencies from various countries and continents.

After that we went to Brussels, where we presented ROOM to the Agoria Industrial Association and to the representatives of the European Parliament. Then, from 29 September to 3 October we participated in the 65th International Astronautical Congress in Toronto – the key annual International Astronautics Federation conference, which gathers leaders of the space industry and astronauts from different parts of the world under one roof. The ROOM booth hosted a lively discussion between delegates from different countries and we ran out of copies before the conference was over!

These projects reflect the fact that the universe, once so giant and frightening, so vast and mysterious, is becoming smaller and smaller

Finally, in October, we participated in an Asia-US Workshop for the leading world market high-tech companies in Japan. As you can see, our magazine staff have been kept busy with this exciting and intense schedule. All seven thousand copies were distributed and very well received.

Editorial board

During this time, we’ve made a lot of new friends, but even more importantly, our first editorial board has been formed. Today, I’m happy to introduce you to a few of its members:

  • Mark J. Lewis, the Director of the Science and Technology Policy Institute, Institute for Defense Analyses;
  • Tsuneo Nishida, who was the Japanese ambassador to various countries and Head of the Japanese diplomatic mission to the UN during his extensive career;
  • Jose Raimundo Braga Coelho, the Head of the Brazilian Space Agency;
  • Richard Crowther, Chief Engineer at UKSA;
  • Dany Van de Ven, Brigadier General (Retd), Belgian Air Force;
  • Barbara Ghinelli, Director at Harwell Oxford Space Cluster;
  • Mary Lynne Dittmar, an aerospace expert with many years of experience;
  • David Alexander, Associate Professor of Astrophysics at Rice University;
  • Chris Welch, Professor of Astronautics and Space Engineering, ISU.

The board is open to newcomers, and we encourage your offers of participation.

A historic few months

Human activity in space has been quite intense during this time. Of course, I’m talking about the ISRO launch of Mangalyaan into Martian orbit (which will aid in further development of interplanetary missions), and Rosetta – the historical ESA mission to the Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet. Preparations for the mission started over 20 years ago, the launch happened ten years ago, and this autumn, for the first time in human history, a probe has landed on a comet. We are truly witnessing epic feats of humanity.

This issue explores the topic of Mars in great detail. We have covered the preliminary information sent by Rosetta, but will expand upon this in future issues, as new data is received. However, even now we can say that the obvious successes of these national and international projects reflect the fact that the universe, once so giant and frightening, so vast and mysterious, is becoming smaller and smaller.

We are beginning to see ourselves as one whole, living in this large and yet, at the same time, small home. And only together, through the efforts of all of humanity, will we be able to sustain peace and ecological balance.

What humanity needs today is mutual trust in the field of international space cooperation. We will come back to this topic in future issues of ROOM.

An international space community

Welcome to a brand new journal, a brand new concept, and a brand new “ROOM”. The name of our journal derives from the fact that “room” is a synonym for “space.” If I feel too confined, for example, I may need more room – more space – around me.

What are the limits of our individual space? They encompass the entire universe. The macrocosm and the microcosm do not exist separately from one another. We all live within the cosmos, which begins in the quietest corner of our house and continues ever outward, toward galaxies so distant that we can barely begin to fathom them.

I should like to point out that the logo of this journal incorporates the symbol for Virgo, a star sign that was often drawn alongside images of wheat, symbolising the harvest on Earth. It is that connection between the cosmic and earthly that represents to us the undeniable link between our own home and the cosmos – and represents the main theme of our journal, which has to do with space environmental issues.

The journal will become a meeting place for intellectuals and experts affiliated with the space community

How does the cosmos affect our Earth, our geopolitics, our everyday life? Will we ever feel at home in space, or will it always be the source of our most primal fears? Will we take to space the same military squabbles we have on this planet or will we preserve it for future generations of a united mankind? Will it be a dumping ground for all of our rubbish or a source of energy and life? It is our journal’s task to seek answers to these and many other questions.

There are three basic directions for our research: First of all, there is astronautics – the exploration of space. Meteorology, astronomy, low and high-orbiting civilian satellites, observatories; all this and more is covered within this section.

The second direction concerns space environmental issues: space junk; holes in the ozone layer; cosmic microwave background; and other environmental issues. Thirdly, we aim to cover threats to humankind’s survival – both the danger of asteroids and meteorites, and manmade, military threats in air and space. We will look at the history of armed conflict, existing weaponry and technology, means of aerospace attack and aerospace defence, and the way these factors affect geopolitics.

The subject of space is so important that it is never too early to start learning about it, which is why we will be creating the “Play ROOM,” a special section aimed at younger readers.

Our aim is to publish a highly professional, scientific and, at the same time, popular journal, one that will not confound the general reader. The publication will be accessible to everyone with an interest in the aerospace environment.

The journal will become a meeting place, a discussion forum for intellectuals and experts directly and indirectly affiliated with the space community from all around the world. The discussion will happen in real time on our website: www.room.eu.com. Members of the international expert community will hold a biannual gathering at the “ROOM” conference. The papers presented will be published in the “White Book of Aerospace Exploration.”

All of this will enable us to bring together an international, non-governmental expert council on space matters – the Socium, as we like to call it. At the present time we are putting together the journal’s Editorial Board and will be delighted to hear your suggestions. Welcome to “ROOM”!