Issue #3(13) 2017 Astronautics

Third quarter phenomenon - the psychology of time in space

Concordia station, the remotest base on Earth. Studying the effects of isolation there is preparing ESA for a mission to Mars.
Concordia station, the remotest base on Earth. Studying the effects of isolation there is preparing ESA for a mission to Mars.
Nathan Smith Ministry of Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Salisbury, UK
Gro Sandal University of Bergen, Norway

Researchers studying the psychology of space travel have long been interested in the phases of change that could occur in human performance and health during prolonged missions beyond Earth’s orbit. If patterns of mood change and performance during spaceflight could be reliably predicted, mission planners could introduce additional training and countermeasures aimed at optimising crew health and cohesion during critical phases. Nathan Smith and Gro Sandal examine the evidence for what has become known as the ‘third quarter phenomenon’ and consider its implications for space travel.

Over 30 years ago, a review of groups in extreme environments (Harrison and Connors, 1984) suggested that mood and morale would reach a low point at some stage beyond the halfway mark of different missions. Taking this idea further, Robert Bechtel and Amy Berning (1991) were the first to coin the term the ‘third quarter phenomenon’ (TQP). Their study, largely based on anecdotal evidence and reflections from the cold regions study project, proposed that those undertaking deployments in challenging scenarios are likely to experience a reduction in mood, irritability, tension and decreased morale after the midpoint and into the third phase of a mission – the TQP. Further, their review suggested that this was more a relative than absolute phenomenon that occurred regardless of the overall length of a mission.

Early evidence for the relative nature of the TQP was provided by Connors et al. (1985) looking at the results of those undertaking a year-long stay in Antarctica, a short submarine mission, and inpiduals participating in a 90-day simulation study. What counts, psychologically, seems to be the knowledge that the first half of the stay is finished, and the anticipation that an equally long period of time lies ahead.

Find out more about the third quarter phenomenon and how long-term space travel can affect the human mind in the full version of the article, available now to our subscribers.

To continue reading this premium article, subscribe now for unlimited access to all online content

If you already have a login and password to access www.room.eu.com - Please log in to be able to read all the articles of the site.

Popular articles

See also

Environment

Terraforming Mars: from CFCs to Total Recall

Security

Finding asteroids before they find us

Opinion

Growing space agency dilemma

Popular articles

Spacewalking astronaut installing a tray supporting numerous material samples at the International Space Station. Astronautics

Challenging the boundaries of materials science

Hispasat’s GEOStar-2 communications satellite launched into GEO in 2014. Astronautics

Servicing the space economy

Virgin Orbit’s LauncherOne, a twostage, expendable rocket that launches from a dedicated 747-400 carrier aircraft, called Cosmic Girl has been contracted for launches to replenish the OneWeb constellation and for the GomSpace ADS-B and AIS monitoring Astronautics

Transforming the launch market for small spacecraft