RSC Energia has been conducting activities in rocket-space industry since 1946 when a team of specialists developing long-range ballistic missiles was organised under the leadership of the Chief Designer S.P. Korolev, generally recognised as the founder of practical cosmonautics. The enterprise initiated all lines of activity related to national rocket and space technology. Today, RSC Energia is Russia’s leading rocket-space enterprise and the top organisation in the field of human space systems. In this special article, company President Vladimir Solntsev looks at some of the long term implications for astronautics and the need for international cooperation.